A region evolves with rising China


South-East Asia’s complex big power relations demand careful and considered understanding, where frequent complications and familiar gut reactions do not help.

WHEN countries have difficulty relating to a rising China, part of the problem lies in not understanding where China is heading and not knowing what it will become.

The sheer scale of China’s development and the weight of its trajectory mean that the impact of its rise on the rest of Asia and the world is bound to be considerable and profound.

As a frame of reference, the future of today’s China is often seen in the context of its past: a “Middle Kingdom” entity, the heart of an Asian tributary system, a regional superpower with global pretensions whose once closed-door policy is opening to the world.

Yet none of these references fits because modern China’s pace of change is as rapid as it is vast. Not only is it a post-Deng China, it is now into the fourth- and fifth-generation leadership of post-Dengist society.

A sense of a likely future China may then be deduced through elimination, by discarding what it is unlikely to be.

These include a communist superpower, a nation shaped by a distinct ideology, and one led by a powerful charismatic individual. But what of those things, admittedly few, that it will still be?

One of these is rule by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), particularly since single party rule continues to be a central bastion of the status quo. Yet even this requires qualification, if not some revision, and is already subject to much speculation.

The CCP has had to undergo some redefinition as circumstances evolve. The state socialism it championed underwent a social(ist) market phase to emerge as state capitalism.

Ideology continues to be diluted as dogma fritters away. Conservatives and reformists both within and outside China agree the trend is irreversible if not also inevitable.

Just about the only thing that a future China is still certain to be is a unitary state. But even this has to be qualified again.

What is now regarded as Greater China – the People’s Republic of China on the mainland, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan – are unlikely to be fused into one singularly cohesive whole anytime soon.

Yet they are moving together towards a unitary economy, the basis of the modern nation state. Such a trend is beyond the protestations of democrats and the comprehension of many strategists.

At the same time, provinces are slowly moving towards greater autonomy in economic matters, including in dealings with neighbouring countries. A country as large as China cannot endure too long under strict centralised rule.

And China has endured longer than all others, with the country now into its fifth millennium of continued statehood. These trends and movements take time and may seem imperceptible for other countries, but they are par for the course with China’s enormous timelines.

For decades now, Chinese authorities have also introduced elections at local levels with invited inputs from the Carter Center. Voting has been practised in village and provincial levels, and despite occasional fits and starts the trend is towards a controlled political opening with assured stability.

All of this contributes to the near-incomprehension of today’s China on the part of external observers. A survey of their attitudes, assumptions and responses in any given week attests to this reality.

Questions of whether China (meaning Beijing) can ever govern Taiwan, or even understand Hong Kong, are typical. The real risk of observers not seeing the wood for the trees is ever-present.

A debate of sorts has emerged over China’s likely reaction to a possible win by Taiwan’s Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) in next January’s election. Pessimists who fret over their own cynical pronouncements fail to realise that China is playing for bigger stakes than petty party feuding.

China’s interest in Taipei is Taiwan, not necessarily a Kuomintang (KMT) Taiwan. A lately declining KMT under President Ma Ying-jou has sufficiently energised pragmatists in Beijing to be diplomatic towards the DPP.

Another perennial issue is the presumed rivalry between the US and China. Although competition exists between them, they have more in common than at variance for now and the foreseeable future.

Their shared interests include international security and a single global economy in which both hold the largest stakes. Rivalry in these core areas compromises the interests of both without enlarging opportunities for either.

An understanding of that basic reality is shared between US and Chinese leaders, but apparently not by Japanese ones. The Abe administration is still stuck between old wartime anxieties and proudly snubbing Beijing.

However, China should also not expect anything but Abe’s cancellation of a visit on Sept 3. The occasion, with Western leaders absent, is being presented by some in China as celebrating its victory over Japan.

China: Military parade not aimed at any country

China says its upcoming September 3rd military parade is part of commemorations for the 70th anniversary of its victory in the war of resistance against Japanese aggression, and is not specifically aimed at any country.http://t.cn/RyzoMBy

Nonetheless, the Abe government remains an activist one in provoking competition with China over military issues. Its White Paper released last month inflates China’s maritime military capabilities and even conflicts with US calculations.

Besides the US, Taiwan and Japan, the other barometer of China’s rise as seen through its foreign relations is Asean.

China regards Asean wariness of its territorial assertiveness as limited and negotiable, since not all member countries have rival claims to offshore territory. But Beijing may seriously be underestimating Asean’s sense of solidarity, given not just Asean’s community-building agenda but also its common resolve to develop community cohesiveness.

The established links between China and Asean’s newer CLMV members (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam) are both limited and fraying in places. Beijing needs to rebuild trust and good faith within Asean as much as in North-East Asia.

China has thus emphasised multi-level, multi-sectoral joint ventures both bilaterally and collectively. Its proposals for a Maritime Silk Road and a One Belt, One Road link to Europe are backed by the China-Asean Maritime Cooperation Fund, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the New Development (Brics) Bank and China’s own solvency.

On the ground however, Asean collectively seeks enlarged trade volumes with China. However, China’s currency devaluations and the subsequent jolts to regional currencies compromise these goals.

With Indonesia, China is extending cooperation in fighting drug trafficking as Jakarta favours using the yuan for bilateral trade. With Malaysia, China is building linkages in education and industrial development.

Thailand’s post-coup government is seen as leaning towards China, thanks in part to a US snub. Now Thai-Chinese ties are growing over purchases of stockpiled Thai rice and even the prospect of a Kra Isthmus canal.

China’s relations with Vietnam and more so the Philippines will require more time and work. Ironically, Unctad trade data identifies the Philippine economy as the biggest regional beneficiary of China’s rise.

Beijing’s ties with the other Asean countries may be less complicated but still require attention and constant tending. Its record of fully understanding Asean is not impressive.

Overall, Beijing’s relations with Asean and its member nations are economic, diplomatic and socio-cultural, without political interference in their domestic matters. This contrasts with Washington’s largely military posturing and its political pressures on issues of democracy and human rights.

China’s impact on this region is likely to remain non-political and non-military – differing from US interaction. This asymmetry makes up much of South-East Asia’s strategic status quo.

Whether and how it will endure, and whether it deserves to remain, still have to be seen.

By Bunn Nagara Behind the Headlines

Bunn Nagara is a Senior Fellow at the Institute of Strategic and International Studies (ISIS) Malaysia.

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Service charges under strata title property in Malaysia


Criminalising non-payment of service charge under the Strata Management Tribunal

A recent conversation with a relative on urban living raised a couple of interesting issues. One led to suggest that many high-rise buildings in Malaysia were fast becoming urban slums, of which I agreed, having noticed that although Malaysians have started living in stratified development properties, they express the devil-may-care attitude and expect “free lunch”. Clearly, there is a huge need for a paradigm shift in responsibilities with regard to community living.
This so-called freedom of not paying of service charges will come to an end with the establishment of the Strata Management Tribunal (SM Tribunal). It states that any parcel owner or tenant who fails to pay service charges, can be brought before the SM Tribunal with the implementation of the Strata Management Act 2013, Strata Management (Maintenance & Management) Regulations 2015 (June 2, 2015) and Strata Management (Strata Management Tribunal) Regulations 2015 (July 1, 2015). It is interesting to note that limitation is not applicable to the SM Tribunal and the maximum that can be claimed is RM250,000 per claim. Any non-compliance of an award (decision) of the SM Tribunal is now a criminal offence.
THE TRIBUNAL
“Any person who fails to comply with an award made by the Tribunal commits an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine, not exceeding RM250,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years, or both, in the case of a continuing offence, to a further fine not exceeding RM5,000 for every day or part thereof during which the offence continues after conviction.” (Section 123)
The Tribunal shall consist of the following members who shall be appointed by the Minister:
 (a) a Chairman and a Deputy Chairman to be appointed from among the members of the Judicial and Legal Service; and
(b) not less than 20 other members
to be appointed from among:
(i) the persons who are members of or who have held office in the Judicial and Legal Service; or
(ii) the persons who are admitted as advocates and solicitors under the Legal Profession Act 1976 [Act 166], the Advocates Ordinance of Sabah [Sabah Cap. 2] or the Advocates Ordinance of Sarawak [Sarawak Cap. 110], and who has no less than seven years’ standing, each appointed for a period of three years.
JURISDICTION OF TRIBUNAL
 
The Tribunal shall have the jurisdiction to hear and determine any claims where the total amount in respect of which an award of the Tribunal is sought, does not exceed RM250,000 or such other amount, as may be prescribed to substitute the total amount.
Claim can be filed in relation to the following:
1. A dispute or complaint concerning an excercise or the performance of, or the failure to exercise or perform, a function, duty, or power conferred or imposed by Strata Management Act 2013 or the by-laws;
2. A dispute cost costs or repairs in respect of a defect in a parcel, building or landed intended for subdivision into parcels, or subdivided building or land, and its common property or limited common property;
3. A claim for the recovery of charges, or contribution to the sinking fund, or any amount which is declared by the provisions of this Act as a debt;
4. A claim for an order to convene a general meeting;
5. A claim for an order to invalidate proceedings of meeting where any provision of the Act has been contravened;
6. A claim for an order to nullify a resolution where voting rights has been denied or where due notice has not been given;
7. A claim for an order to nullify a resolution passed at a general meeting;
8. A claim for an order to revoke amendment of by-laws having regard to the interests of all the parcel owners or proprietors;
9. A claim for an order to vary the rate of interest fixed by the joint management body, management corporation or subsidiary management corporation for late payment of charges, or contribution to the sinking fund;
10. A claim for an order to vary the amount of insurance to be provided;
11. A claim for an order to pursue an insurance claim; 
12. A claim for compelling a developer, joint management body, management corporation or subsidiary management corporation to supply information or documents; 
13. A claim for an order to give consent to effect alterations to any common property or limited common property; or 
14. A claim for an order to affirm, vary or revoke the Commissioner of Building’s decision.
The Orders that the SM Tribunal can make are:
1. Pay a sum of money to another party.
2. Order the  price or other consideration paid by a party to be refunded to that party.
3. Order the payment of compensation or damages for any loss or damage suffered by a party.
4. Order the rectification, setting aside or variation of a contract or additional by-laws, wholly or in part.
5. Order costs to or against any party to be paid.
6. Order interest to be paid on any sum or monetary award at a rate not exceeding eight per centum per annum.
7. Dismiss a claim which it considers to be frivolous or vesatious.
8. Any other order as it deems just and expedient.
9. Make such ancillary or consequential orders or relief as may be necessary to give effect to any order made by the Tribunal.
EXCLUSION OF JURISDICTION OF COURT
Where a claim is filed with the SM Tribunal and the claim is within the Tribunal’s jurisdiction, the issues in dispute in that claim, whether as shown in the initial claim or as emerging in the course of the hearing, shall not be the subject of proceedings between the same parties in any court unless:
(a) the proceedings before the court were commenced before the claim was filed with the Tribunal; or
(b) the claim before the Tribunal is withdrawn, abandoned or struck out.
This means that a claimant has to decide in advance as to which forum he has to file a case because having filed a case in the SM Tribunal means he cannot file the proceed in the same courts or vice versa.
PERSONS ENTITLED TO FILE A CLAIM
This is a free for all Tribunal with many claimants and they are:
(a) a developer;
(b) a purchaser;
(c) a proprietor, including an
original proprietor;
(d) a joint management body;
(e) a management corporation;
(f) a subsidiary management
corporation;
(g) a managing agent; and
(h) any other interested person, with the leave of the Tribunal. Filing procedure is inexpensive, pay only RM20 and simply fill in the required forms. These forms have not been uploaded yet on the KPKT web site but requests can be made by email.
RIGHT TO APPEAR AT HEARINGS
 
At the SM Tribunal, no party shall be represented by an advocate and solicitor at a hearing unless, in the opinion of the Tribunal, the matter in question involves complex issues of law and one party will suffer severe financial hardship if he is not represented by an advocate and solicitor. A corporation or unincorporated body of persons may be represented by a full-time paid employee of the corporation or body. The Tribunal may conduct the proceedings in such manner as it considers appropriate, necessary or expedient for the purpose of ascertaining the facts or law in order that it may determine a claim.
FAST DISPOSAL OF CASES
The SM Tribunal shall make its award without delay and, where practicable, within sixty days from the first day of the hearing before the Tribunal commences. In making an order under subsection (3), the Tribunal shall have regard to:
(a) the relevant provisions of this
Act; or
(b) the interest of all parcel owners or proprietors in the use and enjoyment of their parcels or the common property or limited common property. The award given are final and binding on all parties to the proceedings and are be deemed to be an order of a court and be enforced accordingly by any party to the proceedings. However, any person dissatisfied with the decision of the SM Tribunal can, apply to the High Court challenging the award in the proceedings on the ground of serious irregularity affecting the awards which means an irregularity of one or more of the kinds which the court considers has caused substantial injustice to the applicant.
With the establishment of the SM Tribunal there is hope for better maintenance and management culture to spur our quest to become a developed nation and zero nonpayment issues.
By Datuk Pretam Singh, thesundaily.com
 
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Bitcoin CEO arrest leaves long trail of unanswered questions


Bitcoin trader Kolin Burges from London protests against Tokyo-based bitcoin changer MtGox in front of the company's office in Tokyo on February 26, 2014.

Tokyo (AFP) – The arrest of MtGox boss Mark Karpeles has begun to shed light on the defunct Bitcoin exchange after hundreds of millions of dollars in virtual currency vanished from its digital vaults last year.

But as details of a lengthy investigation by Japanese police trickle out, at least one crucial question remains unanswered: where is the money?

On Friday authorities issued a fresh arrest warrant for Frenchman Karpeles over claims he stole several million dollars from clients, including about $48,000 allegedly spent on a luxury canopy bed.

Karpeles, 30, who has reportedly denied the allegations, was initially taken into custody earlier this month and has been held without formal charges for three weeks, as allowed under Japanese law.

A fresh warrant resets the clock on how long police can hold him and grill the self-described computer geek over Tokyo-based MtGox’s missing Bitcoins.

So far, police have accused Karpeles of manipulating data and stealing sums that amount to just a fraction of the 850,000 coins — worth around $480 million at the time, or $387 million at current exchange rates — that disappeared last year.

MtGox, which once said it handled around 80 percent of global Bitcoin transactions, filed for bankruptcy protection soon after the cyber-money went missing, leaving a trail of angry investors calling for answers.

The company initially said there was a bug in the software underpinning Bitcoins that allowed hackers to pilfer them.

Karpeles later claimed he had found some 200,000 of the lost coins in a “cold wallet” — a storage device, such as a memory stick, that is not connected to other computers.

But the whereabouts of the money and Karpeles’ involvement appear far from solved.

“If there were instances of mismanagement or fraud like this carried out by Mark Karpeles, then he should be held accountable,” Bitcoin investor Kim Nilsson told AFP.

Mark Karpeles, head of the MtGox Bitcoin exchange, …

(But) if these charges against (him) don’t adequately explain where all the Bitcoin … money went, then there are still unresolved questions, quite possibly additional crimes and criminals, that must be investigated further.”

– Real or fake? –

Nilsson also questioned whether MtGox’s Bitcoin deposits were even real in the first place.

“Did MtGox at any point actually hold the coins in question, or have there been faked deposit entries merely making it look that way?” he asked

MtGox reportedly kept its own funds and clients’ money in the same bank account.

In an interview with Japan’s top-selling Yomiuri newspaper, Karpeles’ mother said her “genius” son learned computer languages at age three and started making simple programmes of his own two years later.

Back in 2006, Karpeles — who reportedly lived in an $11,000-a-month penthouse Tokyo apartment — wrote on his blog that computer crime was “totally contrary to my ethical principles”.

But four years later, a Paris court sentenced him in absentia to a year in prison for hacking. He had come to Japan to work for a web development company in 2009 and later got involved with the Bitcoin exchange.

– Tangible object –

Investors have called on the firm’s court-appointed administrators to publicise its data so that experts around the world can help analyse what happened at MtGox.

But the case presented a complex challenge to Japanese police, as financial watchdogs around the world struggle to work out how to regulate digital money.

Unlike traditional currencies backed by a government or central bank, Bitcoins are generated by complex chains of interactions among a huge network of computers around the planet.

“The Bitcoin case is really an embezzlement case, but embezzlement has to involve a ‘tangible object,'” said Hisashi Sonoda, a criminal law professor at Japan’s Konan University.

“Japanese criminal law treats digital currency as ‘data,’ not what we call ‘tangible object’ in a legal sense.”

Backers say virtual currencies, which started to appear around 2009, allow for an efficient and anonymous way to store and transfer funds online.

But critics argue the lack of legal framework governing the currency, the opaque way it is traded and its volatility make it dangerous.

Following Karpeles’ arrest, Tokyo vowed to boost digital-currency regulations.

Japan’s penal code “is not really catching up with quickly changing business models”, hampering authorities’ investigation, Sonoda said.

“If there was a clause or a fresh law targeting digital currency, that would have been helpful for investigators.”

AFP By Hiroshi Hiyama

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By-laws governing strata property in Malaysia, part 3


General prohibitions of a proprietor according to the Third Schedule of Strata Management Regulation 2015

A PROPRIETOR shall not use his strata parcel for any purposes, illegal or otherwise, which may be injurious to the reputation of the development area; use as fuel of any substance or material which may give rise to smoke or fumes or obnoxious smells or shall not use any substance which the management corporation in a general meeting shall decide; and throw or allow to fall, any refuse or rubbish of any description on the common property or any part thereof except in refuse bins maintained by him or in refuse chutes or in refuse bins in common refuse chambers provided in the building.

PROHIBITION OF NUISANCE
A proprietor shall not use language or behave in a manner likely to cause offence or embarrassment or nuisance to any other proprietor or to any person lawfully using the common property.

APPEARANCE, FAÇADE AND COLOUR OF EXTERIOR
A proprietor shall not change the appearance, colour code and façade to any part on the exterior of his parcel without the prior written approval of the management corporation and, where necessary, the approval of the appropriate authority.

PEST CONTROL
A proprietor shall take all necessary steps to prevent his parcel from infestation by termites, vermin, rodents, pests and insects provided that any netting installed shall first be approved by the management corporation.

KEEPING OF ANIMALS IN A RESIDENTIAL BUILDING
A proprietor shall not keep any particular animal in his strata parcel or on the common property thereof that may cause annoyance or nuisance to the other proprietors or which may be dangerous to the safety or health of the other proprietors or which contravenes any written law or rules and regulations of the relevant state or the local authority.

DRYING OF LAUNDRY
In a building used for residential or dwelling purposes, a proprietor shall not, except with the prior written approval of the management corporation, hang any washing, towel, bedding, clothing or other article on any part of his strata parcel in such a way as to protrude outside, other than at the areas designated for such purpose and leave them there only for a reasonable period.

IDENTIFICATION FOR SECURITY PURPOSES
The management corporation may require any person on the common property to identify himself for security purposes and any person who refuses to comply and who is not a proprietor to leave the common property or the development area immediately.

PROHIBITION OF OBSTRUCTION
All fire escape routes, including but not limited to, the stairways, landings and passageways in the building or the common property shall not be obstructed by the proprietor at any time and the management corporation may, without prior notice, remove or confiscate any property of a proprietor, including but not limited to, bicycles, potted plants, vases, furniture, trolleys, boxes,goods or objects of any kind whatsoever. The management corporation may put up a notice of any removed or confiscated property which may be claimed by the proprietor within fourteen days from date of the notice subject to payment to the management corporation of a charge not exceeding RM200. If a removed or confiscated property is not claimed at the expiry of the period of fourteen days, the management corporation may discard or dispose of such property as it deems fit without any liability to the proprietor.

GARDEN, LAWNS AND POTTED PLANTS
A proprietor shall not damage any lawn, trees, shrubs, plants or flowers in the common property.

ENCROACHMENT ON COMMON PROPERTY AND OTHER PARCELS
A proprietor shall not do anything to his strata parcel which may encroach on any part of the common property or any other strata parcels. A proprietor shall not mark, paint, put up posters or banners or notices, drive nails or screws, or fasten brackets or the like into, or otherwise damage or deface, any part of the common property except with the prior written approval of the management corporation. An approval given by the management corporation shall not authorise any addition(s) to the common property.

VEHICLES
Every vehicle shall be properly parked in the designated parking bay without causing any obstruction to any adjacent vehicle or the flow of traffic. An improperly parked vehicle may be towed away or wheel-clamped by the management corporation, at the vehicle owner’s cost without prior notice, and in such a case, the wheel clamp will only be removed after payment to the management corporation of a charge imposed by the management corporation which shall not exceed RM200, and with any towing cost and holding charge actually incurred by the management corporation.

SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL
A proprietor shall not cause any unsightly accumulation of dirt, garbage, rubbish or debris in his strata parcel and accessory parcel that is visible from the outside and affecting the appearance or façade of the building or common property.

RENOVATION WORKS AND REPAIRS
A proprietor shall not carry out any renovation works to his strata parcel without first obtaining a prior written approval from the management corporation and, where necessary, from the appropriate authority.

RESTRICTIONS IN RENOVATION WORKS
Unless prior approval in writing has been obtained from the appropriate authority and the management corporation, a proprietor shall not:
• construct another floor level to his strata parcel (e.g. to split the level of any portion of the existing floor in the strata parcel by adding platforms);
• relocate any external door or window of his strata parcel;
• remove or make changes to any building safety feature in his strata parcel and notwithstanding such approvals, the proprietor shall indemnify and keep indemnified the management corporation against any liability which may be incurred or suffered as a result of such removal;
• shift any plumbing and sewerage system in a strata parcel;
• change or upgrade the whole electrical system in a strata parcel; or
• illegally connect or tap electricity supply.

POWER OF THE MANAGEMENT CORPORATION 

Where the condition of any strata parcel(s) in the development area affects or is likely to affect the support or shelter provided by that parcel for another parcel in the same building or the common property, or causes or is likely to cause damage or destruction to another parcel or any property therein in the same building or the common property; and the proprietor of the parcel in that condition has neglected or refused within a reasonable time of two written notifications of at least fourteen days each from the management corporation to take such action as is necessary to have that condition rectified; the management corporation may, as agent for the proprietor of the parcel in that condition, take such actions and proceedings as are necessary to have that condition rectified and the management corporation may recover the cost and expense of such actions and proceedings from the proprietor of the parcel in that condition as a debt due to the management corporation.

CHANGES TO BY-LAWS 

A developer during the developer’s management period may make additional by-laws or make amendments to such additional bylaws, not inconsistent with the bylaws in the Third Schedule, with the approval of the Commissioner of Building.

A joint management body may, by a special resolution, make additional by-laws or make amendments to such additional bylaws, not inconsistent with the bylaws in the Third Schedule, for regulating the control, management, administration, use and enjoyment of the building or land intended for subdivision into parcels and the common property, including all or any of the following matters:
• safety and security measures; • details of any common property of which the use is restricted;
• the keeping of pets;
• parking; • floor coverings;
• refuse control;
• behaviour;
• architectural and landscaping guidelines to be observed by all strata parcel owners; and
• imposition of a fine, not exceeding RM200 against any parcel owner, occupant or invitee who is in breach of any of the by-laws.

Follow our article next week on The Strata Management Tribunal, highlighting criminalising nonpayment of service charges.

BY DATUK PRETAM SINGH DARSHAN SINGH, The Sun

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Opinion: Malaysia’s Broken System by John Berthelsen


Originally posted on Din Merican: the Malaysian DJ Blogger:

August 22, 2015

Opinion: Malaysia’s Broken System

by John Berthelsen@www.asiasentinel.com

http://www.asiasentinel.com/opinion/opinion-malaysias-broken-system/

malaysia-no-1-in-corruption

It is ironic that a chorus of leaders from the United Malays National Organization(UMNO) have accused critics of scandal-scarred Prime Minister Najib Razak of “seeking to destroy parliamentary democracy in Malaysia.” There is no parliamentary democracy in Malaysia.

Malaysia’s government is broken. Every institution that exists in a normal democracy to protect the people does not work. That includes the parliament, the courts, the police, the mainstream press and the religious establishment, which all act to perpetuate the ruling coalition – primarily UMNO – in power.

I Berlin Quote

“Constitutional democracy has taken a new meaning in Malaysia and that is the status quo of the incumbent power,” one of the country’s most prominent constitutional lawyers said privately. “There are threats even against me for having acted in my professional capacity as a constitutional lawyer for those who desire to seek change.”


‘Our…

View original 1,042 more words

A strata property living nightmare: leakage


The party responsible is not your upstairs neighbour but the management

 
Stiff penalty: Whoever fails to give access to the party carrying out the inspection commits an offence. The fine imposed is up to RM50,000 or imprisonment of up to three years or both, under regulation 63(2).

IF you live in a high rise building and have an inter-floor leakage issue, you can be rest assured that you are not alone. Inter-floor leakage is without a doubt one of the biggest problems faced by many dwellers of high rise buildings.

Whilst the leakage may appear only in a particular parcel, the source of the leakage may lie in the parcel above or even elsewhere. The cooperation of more than one party is therefore required; without which one cannot even begin to identify the problem, let alone solve it.

Two issues must be identified when there is an inter-floor leakage. Firstly, the source of the leakage and secondly, the person or body responsible for repair or rectification. Who is supposed to identify the source of the leakage to start with? The person or body responsible of course, you may say, but how do you know who is responsible before the cause of the problem is ascertained? A bit of a chicken and egg situation arises.

New Act

Will the new management Act answer to all ceiling leakages?

In February 2013 the Strata Management Act 2013 (SMA) was passed by Parliament. With that came a presumption in law, under Section 142 of the SMA, that if the leakage is on the ceiling, then such leakage is presumed to be from the parcel above unless it is proven otherwise. So, if you have a leakage from your ceiling, go to your upstairs neighbour and tell him/her that he/she is responsible and must therefore find the source of the leakage and do the repair. What if he/she disclaims responsibility? Simple, You just quote Section 142 of the SMA. What a magical section with a “one fits all” answer to ceiling leakages! I thought so too when I first read Section 142, but I was not completely right for the law does not place the entire responsibility squarely on the upstairs parcel owner.

It was to be another couple of years before the SMA was implemented in June 2015 but the good news is that with that came also the implementation of the Strata Management (Maintenance & Management) Regulations 2015 (SMR). Many thanks to those (including HBA volunteers) who worked tirelessly on drafting and fine tuning the provisions of the SMR, we now have some definite answers on what to do if you have a leakage from your ceiling.

Who is responsible?

In dealing with inter-floor leakage one must not just look at Section 142 of the SMA but also Part XV of the SMR. Indeed it is Part XV of the SMR which tells you what to do if you discover dampness, moisture or water penetration from your ceiling or if you were to go home one day only to find that it is raining in your apartment.

Go to the developer if you are still covered by the defects liability provisions.

If the leakage is still covered by the provisions of your sale and purchase agreement (SPA), follow the provisions of your SPA. For homebuyers, these are typically cases where the leakage or defect occurs during the defects liability period, and which the housing developers are required to rectify, as provided in the statutory SPA.

JMB/MC/Management first in the line of responsibility – regulation 56

If the leakage is not one which is covered by the SPA, then notice may be served by the owner of the affected parcel on the developer or the joint management body (“JMB”) or the management corporation (“MC”) or the subsidiary management corporation (“sub-MC”), as the case may be.

This is provided for in regulation 56(1) of the SMR. What regulation 56 essentially means is that you serve notice on the body responsible for the maintenance and management of the common property, which for convenience I shall refer to as “the management”. So, now you see, the party first in the line of responsibility is not your upstairs neighbour but the management.

Once notice is received, the management must, within seven days, carry out an inspection to determine the cause of the leakage and the party responsible for rectification (regulation 57). Thereafter, the management must issue a “Certificate of Inspection” stating the cause of the inter-floor leakage as well as the party responsible for rectification (regulation 59). A standard form certificate for this purpose can be found in Form 28 under the Second Schedule of the SMR.

So, what is the purpose of Section 142, you may ask? Section 142 merely creates a presumption that the defect lies in the parcel above. In practical terms, this does nothing towards resolving any inter-floor leakage issues other than perhaps as a starting point for inspection. After all, one cannot possibly rectify a defect which causes the leakage until and unless the actual defect is identified. The legal implication of Section 142, however, is perhaps best left to those much more qualified than I but I do wonder if this statutory presumption alone can be a valid ground for holding the upstairs parcel owner responsible and if so under what circumstances in light of the provisions of the SMR.

Determining factor(s)

Under regulation 58 of the SMR, the management must take into account not just the aforesaid presumption but also the following matters which to my mind are far more relevant once the defect is identified:-

(1) that any defect in something which serves more than one parcel is a common property defect; and

(2) that any defect in something which serves only one parcel is a defect of that particular parcel even though that something is situated in common property or in void space.

In other words, the determining factor is not the location of that defective something but which parcels that something serves. If it serves just one parcel, that particular parcel owner is primarily responsible and must rectify the defect failing which the management shall carry out the rectification works and charge the expenses to that particular parcel owner. I say primarily because whilst regulation 61 of the SMR imposes the obligation on a specific parcel owner such obligation is expressly stated to be without prejudice to that parcel owner seeking indemnity from someone else.

That of course begs the question of who can be held liable for such indemnity; a question which is beyond the scope of this article but I certainly will not rule out any parcel owner, including the affected parcel owner, who contributes towards the defect or any delay in the rectification of the defect.

The decision of the management is, as expected, not final. Anyone not satisfied with a decision made against him/her may refer to the Commissioner Of Buildings (COB) who shall ascertain the cause of the leakage and the party responsible in accordance with regulation 64(1) & (2) and the decision of the COB shall be complied with by all parties concerned.

Grant access for inspection or risk prosecution

It goes without saying: that neither inspection nor rectification works can be effectively carried out without access to all relevant parcels and common property. Hence, the imposition of a statutory obligation on all relevant parties to give access as provided by regulation 63(1) of the SMR comes as no surprise at all.

Whoever fails to give access to the party carrying out the inspection commits an offence! And the punishment is severe too; a fine of up to RM50,000 or imprisonment of up to three years or both, under regulation 63(2).

Given that the lack of cooperation on the part of some parcel owners/occupiers has remained one of the main causes of delay in resolving inter-floor leakage problems, these provisions are definitely a step in the right direction. It does puzzle me, however, that whilst a failure to give access for inspection tantamount to an offence, the same does not seem to apply to a failure to give access for rectification.

Some of you cynics out there may be tempted to brush this aside as something unlikely to be enforced by the authorities but do you want to take that chance? Do you really want to risk prosecution over something as simple as giving access for inspection and/or rectification?

Beside, now that the Strata Management Tribunal has been set up you may be slapped with an order much sooner than you think.

By Chang Kim Loong Buyer Beware

Chang Kim Loong AMN is the honorary secretary-general of the National House Buyers Association: http://www.hba.org.my , a non-profit, non-governmental organisation manned purely by volunteers.

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Scientists Finally Discover How the Obesity Gene Works


https://news.yahoo.com/video/key-gene-tied-obesity-maybe-221910667.html?format=embed

Scientists have finally figured out how the key gene tied to obesity makes people fat, a major discovery that could open the door to an entirely new approach to the problem beyond diet and exercise.

The work solves a big mystery: Since 2007, researchers have known that a gene called FTO was related to obesity, but they didn’t know how, and could not tie it to appetite or other known factors.

Now experiments reveal that a faulty version of the gene causes energy from food to be stored as fat rather than burned. Genetic tinkering in mice and on human cells in the lab suggests this can be reversed, giving hope that a drug or other treatment might be developed to do the same in people.

The work was led by scientists at MIT and Harvard University and published online Wednesday by the New England Journal of Medicine.

The discovery challenges the notion that “when people get obese it was basically their own choice because they choose to eat too much or not exercise,” said study leader Melina Claussnitzer, a genetics specialist at Harvard-affiliated Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. “For the first time, genetics has revealed a mechanism in obesity that was not really suspected before” and gives a third explanation or factor that’s involved.

Independent experts praised the discovery.

“It’s a big deal,” said Dr. Clifford Rosen, a scientist at Maine Medical Center Research Institute and an associate editor at the medical journal.

“A lot of people think the obesity epidemic is all about eating too much,” but our fat cells play a role in how food gets used, he said. With this discovery, “you now have a pathway for drugs that can make those fat cells work differently.”

Several obesity drugs are already on the market, but they are generally used for short-term weight loss and are aimed at the brain and appetite; they don’t directly target metabolism.

Researchers can’t guess how long it might take before a drug based on the new findings becomes available. But it’s unlikely it would be a magic pill that would enable people to eat anything they want without packing on the pounds. And targeting this fat pathway could affect other things, so a treatment would need rigorous testing to prove safe and effective.

The gene glitch doesn’t explain all obesity. It was found in 44 percent of Europeans but only 5 percent of blacks, so other genes clearly are at work, and food and exercise still matter.

Having the glitch doesn’t destine you to become obese but may predispose you to it. People with two faulty copies of the gene (one from Mom and one from Dad) weighed an average of 7 pounds more than those without them. But some were obviously a lot heavier than that, and even 7 pounds can be the difference between a healthy and an unhealthy weight, said Manolis Kellis, a professor at MIT.

Related: More U.S. Adults Are Now Obese than Overweight

He and Claussnitzer are seeking a patent related to the work. It was done on people in Europe, Sweden and Norway, and funded by the German Research Center for Environmental Health and others, including the U.S. National Institutes of Health.

Researchers can’t guess how long it might take before a drug based on the new findings becomes available. But it’s unlikely it would be a magic pill that would enable people to eat anything they want without packing on the pounds. And targeting this fat pathway could affect other things, so a treatment would need rigorous testing to prove safe and effective.

The gene glitch doesn’t explain all obesity. It was found in 44 percent of Europeans but only 5 percent of blacks, so other genes clearly are at work, and food and exercise still matter.

Having the glitch doesn’t destine you to become obese but may predispose you to it. People with two faulty copies of the gene (one from Mom and one from Dad) weighed an average of 7 pounds more than those without them. But some were obviously a lot heavier than that, and even 7 pounds can be the difference between a healthy and an unhealthy weight, said Manolis Kellis, a professor at MIT.

Related: ‘Healthy Obesity’ Turns Unhealthy Over Time

He and Claussnitzer are seeking a patent related to the work. It was done on people in Europe, Sweden and Norway, and funded by the German Research Center for Environmental Health and others, including the U.S. National Institutes of Health.

“It’s a potential target” for drug development, said Dr. Sam Klein, an obesity researcher at Washington University in St. Louis. He called the work “an amazing study” and “a scientific tour de force.”

Dr. Rudolph Leibel, an obesity expert at Columbia University in New York, used the same term — “tour de force.” Still, some earlier research suggests the FTO gene may influence other aspects of obesity such as behavior and appetite.

“It’s possible there are several mechanisms being affected,” and that fat-burning is not the whole story, he said.

Read This Next: There Are 6 Types Of Obesity — And Each Should Be Treated Differently

– Associated Press

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