Being constantly connected online has bad consequences: harming memory, make you stupid

How much is too much?: Studies have found that Internet is harming our memory, especially short-term or working memory
How Smart Phones Make You Stupid
– Consumer Association of Penang (CAP)

Being constantly connected to the digital world has its consequences – setting the rules with social media

In order to have a more harmonious marriage, H and I have decided that we need some rules.

Recently, we came up with Rule No. 1: You can only repeat something once.

It’s been really helpful in keeping the nagging level of our marriage down. In the past, we would nag at each other quite a bit.

It has worked so well, we thought we should introduce more rules.

A few weeks back, he suggested Rule No. 2: No Googling and checking of e-mail at the dining table and just before we sleep.

I baulked.

What a ridiculous rule, I said. It’ll be impossible for me to agree to it and it’s not fair because it’s targeted at me.

How can I not be checking my e-mail all the time, I continued. I am a journalist. I must know what’s happening and I must be contactable 24/7. What if a story breaks? I need to know at once. I was, of course, exaggerating my own importance.

The world and the newsroom chug along just fine whether or not I am online. My bosses don’t expect me to be constantly connected (I think).

I was using work as an excuse. An excuse for an affliction I am finally coming around to acknowledging, but which H has noticed for some time: I have an addiction.

I have an addiction to Googling, to my smartphone, to my iPad, to being connected to the digital world.

My phone follows me everywhere I go. I sleep with it inches away from my pillow and my nights (as well as his) are punctuated with beeps, blips and pings from the many message notifications streaming in.

I check my phone goodness knows how many times a day, to look at my e-mail, WhatsApp, Telegram, Twitter, Facebook, Vine, Instagram and a few other apps.

When I’m at the cinema, I’m one of those irritating people whose phone screen lights up during a movie because I’m checking it.

I literally break out in a cold sweat when I misplace my phone.

At home, I walk around not only with my phone, but also my tablet.

I am addicted to Googling on my iPad. I can spend an entire day in bed just Googling (oh, bliss). Sometimes, when the Wi-Fi speed is acting up, I Google on both my phone and tablet at the same time, just in case one gets to the information I want quicker.

“You’re addicted,” H says.

“I’m not,” I say. “It’s my job. I am not addicted. I know when to stop.”

To prove my point, I went onto Google (of course) to try out some are-you-an-Internet-addict tests.

The most helpful article I came across was in Yahoo by Dr James Roberts, a professor of marketing at Baylor University in Texas in the United States.

He explained that anything that can produce pleasure in our brain has the potential of becoming addictive and what makes something an addiction is when we lose control.

Research, he said, has identified “six signs” of any type of substance or behavioural addiction.

These signs relate to issues connected to salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict and relapse. I have a problem. But the situation isn’t that dire, I’d like to think.

Still, I shouldn’t be complacent. It can’t be pleasant living with someone who doesn’t give you her full attention because her nose is always stuck in a screen. It is also rude.

At work, I have got into the bad habit of not looking at colleagues I’m talking to because I’m also typing away on my phone or computer.

At meetings when I’m just the slightest bit bored, I find it hard to resist reaching for my phone and checking my e-mail, which is impolite to the person who’s speaking.

My attachment to my devices can be dangerous – I walk and text a lot. The intense and constant staring at screens is causing eye strain.

Studies have also found that the Internet is harming our memory, especially short-term or working memory.

Information overload and distractions – hallmarks of Internet surfing – make it harder to retain information in our brains.

When we know a digital device holds information for us, we are also less likely to remember it ourselves. It has been years since I memorised anyone’s telephone number. I’m not even sure I can do it now.

Having so much information at my fingertips has made my brain lazy and mushy.Google makes you feel clever when you really aren’t.

Also, while social media like Facebook have been praised for bringing people closer, they can in fact isolate us when we use them in place of face-to-face interactions.

As for H and me, I think I should agree to some version of Rule No. 2 if I want a happier marriage.

Totally no Googling and checking of e-mail at the dining table and just before we sleep might not be doable.

But I can live with “less” Googling and checking of e-mail. One step at a time

By Sumiko Tan The Straits Times/Asia News Network


A Brain-Food Surprise!

A familiar brain-food takes on yet another starring role! Fat-rich fish.

Fish_Fat RichFat-rich fish is loaded with vitamin D. Neuroscientists now believe that your brain is the biggest beneficiary of vitamin D.

Consider vitamin D a stealth substance… is all around us, but increasingly elusive. You get vit D from the sun. We are told to stay out of the sun or use a sun screen. This makes sense, because of potential skin damage and related cancer concerns. The result, though, is that many people are deficient in vit D. A lack of vit D in the brain is not good news.

Here is what we know:

Too little Vit D in the adult brain increases the risk of stroke and dementia.

Vit D thins blood and protects neurons in your brain. Mood disorders are linked to low levels of vitamin D.

A link has been discovered between inadequate levels of vit D and autism and schizophrenia.

I have started to include more of these vitamin D rich foods in my diet:salmon, mackerel, sardines, shrimp, milk, and eggs

Recipes that use these foods could be considered a day of sunshine!

I have become very aware that I have one brain and that it is involved in every thing I do. I am doing my best to look after it.

For more on the brain benefits of fish check out Brain Bulletins 26 and 33 in the Brain Bulletin Archive.
In the last Brain Bulletin I told you that I had just started reading an amazing book:The End of Overeating by David Kessler

It is an absolutely remarkable book in that it approaches eating as a brain behaviour. I saw myself on just about every page. I could not read it fast enough!

Many of the questions that I get asked in my live presentations relate to eating. Usually about eating too much, or continually eating the wrong foods. I have told people for 25 years that you eat with your brain, not your mouth. The End of Overeating really illuminates how your brain interacts with food. You will enjoy it and remember, I don’t get a penny for recommeding it.

Last week I was in Barrie, Ontario keynoting the Aim Language Learning Conference. I met lots of great people and I got to celebrate Canada Day in downtown Barrie. It was lots of fun! This week our daughter and soon to be son-in-law, Taryn and Jeff, get married. I get to spend the rest of the month presenting seminars in beautiful Vancouver.

Everyday new horizons appear in your life and new doors open all around you. Train your brain to look for them and……

Remember: “You are a genius!”

By Terry Small.
Terry Small is a brain expert who resides in Canada and believes that anyone can learn how to learn easier, better, faster, and that learning to learn is the most important skill a person can acquire.

Malaysia needs re-engineering sports, not computer games, junk foods….

Re-engineering sports in schools

KHAIRY Jamaluddin, our Youth and Sports Minister, wants to transform our country into a sporting nation – he has a daunting task to achieve with many challenges along the path of success.

Golf_schoolFirst and foremost, how much time is allocated to physical education in schools? With more children reportedly facing obesity, we wouldn’t even get to the starting block.

Also, our children are too engrossed with computer games and our fields are being hijacked for commercial development, making our children lazier. Let’s not forget too the unhealthy fast food eating culture.

Physical education classes are irregular in schools and disorganised. PE teachers lack the knowledge in sports science or health science.

Most teachers lack the capability to assess a potential athlete as they cannot even explain the percentage of fast and slow twitch muscle fibres and other aspects related to athletic performance such as physiology, physical ability, technical proficiency and psychological predisposition to performance.

Based on feedback, students are just given a ball to kick around without being given much guidance on ball skills. In many cases, students just laze around the field without proper attire.

The main focus of schools, teachers and parents seems to be for students to score the maximum number of “A’s” in the exams, with sports ranking low in priority among the stakeholders.

ATCO PSA World Series Squash FinalsThe million-dollar question now is how are we going to create a sports culture in schools and sell the idea to parents that sports offers great career progression?

Parents have seen that sports does not pay in the long run, except in a few cases like Datuk Nicol David (squash), Datuk Lee Chong Wei (badminton) and Pandelela Rinong (diving) who are positive role models.

There must be a firm commitment from the Government to prioritise school sports, facilities and space for competitive sports and play.

Khairy, our No.1 sports fan must work closely with the relevant stakeholders to promote a strong sports culture among our youths.


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Exercise for the brain

The therapeutic properties of exercise is well supported by a substantial amount of research.

Recent studies reported that an increase in the time dedicated to physical health-based activities is not associated with a decline in academic performance.Recent studies reported that an increase in the time dedicated to physical health-based activities is not associated with a decline in academic performance.

THE benefits of exercise are well publicised. Exercise is associated with a reduction in physical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, colon and breast cancer, obesity and mental illness (including depression and anxiety disorders) across the adult lifespan.

The National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011 revealed that about 64.3% of Malaysians were physically active. The level of physical activity gradually decreased with increasing age, and this was particularly apparent in senior citizens.

Despite evidence of the importance of exercise, the prevalence of overweight and obese Malaysians was 29.4% and 15.1% respectively based on the World Health Organization (1998) classification.

Although some are aware of the benefits of exercise, there are many who are unaware that exercise has considerable benefits for the brain. This is put aptly by John Ratey, author of A User’s Guide to the Brain.

“Exercise is really for the brain, not the body. It affects mood, vitality, alertness and feelings of well-being.”

There is increasing evidence that exercise can improve learning and memory, delay age-related cognitive decline, reduce risk of neurodegeneration and alleviate depression.

Exercise and brain function

Exercise improves brain function in different ways. It enhances learning and plasticity, is neuroprotective, and is therapeutic and protective against depression

Exercise enhances learning and plasticity, which is the capacity of the brain and nervous system to continuously alter neural pathways and synapses in response to experience or injury.

Although some are aware of the benefits of exercise, there are many who are unaware that exercise has considerable benefits for the brain.

Although some are aware of the benefits of exercise, there are many who are unaware that exercise has considerable benefits for the brain.

The effects of exercise have been demonstrated in ageing human populations in which sustained exercise has augmented learning and memory, improved executive functions, impeded age-related and disease-related mental decline, and protected against age-related atrophy in parts of the brain areas that are vital for higher cognitive processes.

Physical activity has a positive effect on cognition, which includes every mental process that may be described as an experience of knowing (including perceiving, recognising, conceiving, and reasoning).

There is a significant relationship between physical activity and improved cognition in normal adults as well as those with early signs of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), in which there is mild impairment of memory or cognition.

There is a dose-response relationship between exercise and health-related quality of life, with moderate exercise associated with the best outcomes.

The literature on the effects of exercise on cognition during children’s development is less substantial. However, a meta-analysis by Sibley & Etnier reported a positive correlation between physical activity and cognitive performance in children aged between four and 18 years in eight categories, i.e. perceptual skills, intelligence quotient, achievement, verbal tests, mathematic tests, memory, developmental level/academic readiness and others.

A beneficial relationship was found for all categories, with the exception of memory, which was unrelated to physical activity behaviour, and for all age groups, although it was stronger for children in the ages of four to seven and 11 to 13 years, compared with the ages of eight to 10 and 14 to 18 years.

Recent studies have reported that an increase in the time dedicated to physical health-based activities is not associated with a decline in academic performance.

The literature on the impact of exercise on cognition in young adults is limited, probably because cognition peaks during young adulthood and there is little room for exercise-related improvement at this stage of the lifespan.

Although there is considerable evidence that exercise can facilitate learning in humans and other animals, there are gaps in knowledge regarding the types of learning that are improved with exercise.

Therapeutic exercise programmes after a stroke accelerates functional rehabilitation. Therapeutic exercise programmes after a stroke accelerates functional rehabilitation.

Exercise protects the brain (neuroprotective). It reduces the impact of brain injury and delays the onset and decline in several neurodegenerative diseases. For example, therapeutic exercise programmes after a stroke accelerates functional rehabilitation.

Furthermore, physical activity delays the onset and reduces the risk for AD, Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, and can even slow functional decline after neurodegeneration has begun.

There is evidence that exercise is therapeutic and protective in depression, which is associated with a decline in cognition.

Depression is considered to be a health burden that is greater than that of ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease or tuberculosis.

Clinical trials have reported the efficacy of aerobic or resistance training exercise in the treatment of depression in young and older patients, with benefits similar to that of antidepressant medicines. More exercise leads to greater improvements.

Trials have also reported improvement in depressive symptoms in AD compared to those non-exercising individuals whose depressive symptoms worsened.

Bipolar disorders do not appear to respond as well to exercise, but those with anxiety respond even faster.

There is a convergence of the concept that brain health and cognition are influenced by the interplay of various central and peripheral factors. Brain function is believed to be impaired by peripheral risk factors that lead to cognitive decline, including hypertension, hyperglycemia, insulin insensitivity and dyslipidemia, features that are commonly known as the “metabolic syndrome”.

Of these factors, hypertension and glucose intolerance play crucial roles. Exercise not only reduces all these peripheral risk factors but also improves cardiovascular health, lipid–cholesterol balance, energy metabolism, glucose use, insulin sensitivity and inflammation.

As such, exercise improves brain health and function by directly enhancing brain health and cognitive function, and indirectly, by reducing the peripheral risk factors for cognitive decline.

It is believed that exercise initiates an interactive cascade of growth factor signals which lead to the stimulation of plasticity, improvement of cognitive function, reduction of the mechanisms that drive depression, stimulation of neurogenesis and improvement of cerebrovascular perfusion.

Although much is known about the effects of exercise and physical activity on brain and cognition, there are many important questions that are unanswered.

They include questions like the design of exercise interventions which optimise the effects on cognition and brain health; when it is best to begin; what are the best varieties, intensities, frequencies and duration of exercise; is it ever too late to start an exercise programme; and can exercise be used to reduce the effects of neurodegenerative diseases.

Knowing the how

Exercise affects many sites in the nervous system and stimulates the secretion of chemicals like serotonin and dopamine, which make humans feel calm, happy, and euphoric. You do not have to wait for these feelings to occur – you can initiate them by exercising.

There is no shortage of advice on the various physical exercises that enhances cardiovascular health. Prior to embarking on exercise, a consultation with the doctor would be helpful, especially for senior citizens. This will help in choosing the appropriate exercise for one’s individual situation.

In general, what is good for the heart is also good for the brain.

The usual recommended minimum is half an hour of moderate exercise thrice a week. This can be walking, jogging, swimming, playing games, dancing etc.

The public is often reminded about a healthy lifestyle, which is focused on physical health. However, it is also important to exercise mentally and keep the brain healthy.

There are publications and activities available that can help you make a start and continue to improve cognition, memory, creativity and other brain functions.

Anyone at any age can do so, even senior citizens. It is moot to remember the adage: if you don’t use it, you lose it.

Malaysia Festival of the Mind 2013

The ninth Malaysia Festival of the Mind will be held from June 15-16, 2013, at Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) Perak Campus in Kampar, and June 22-23 at Tunku Abdul Rahman University College (TARC) Main Campus in Setapak, Kuala Lumpur.

It is open to the public from 9.30am – 4.30pm. Talks, workshops, exhibitions and competitions will be held to create awareness about the human mind and its unlimited potential; as well as ways of tapping into and developing one’s brainpower to the fullest.

For further information, visit or email or call (03) 7625 0328 (Justin/Sin Yee) or (05) 468 8888 (Wei See/Jamaliah).


> Dr Milton Lum is a member of the board of Medical Defence Malaysia. This article is not intended to replace, dictate or define evaluation by a qualified doctor. The views expressed do not represent that of any organisation the writer is associated with. For further information, e-mail The information provided is for educational and communication purposes only and it should not be construed as personal medical advice. Information published in this article is not intended to replace, supplant or augment a consultation with a health professional regarding the reader’s own medical care. The Star does not give any warranty on accuracy, completeness, functionality, usefulness or other assurances as to the content appearing in this column. The Star disclaims all responsibility for any losses, damage to property or personal injury suffered directly or indirectly from reliance on such information.

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Rightways for Heart Health

Laws of attraction

Are men attracted to women who look like them?

THE Laws of attraction_men-womemnext time you happen to be with your spouse or your partner, take a good look at their features. Do they look a bit familiar?

And no, I don’t mean familiar just because you’ve been with that person for a while. I mean familiar in the sense that you’ve seen those same features, or at least some of them, somewhere else. Like, in the mirror every morning.

If the results of a French study are anything to go by, men are most attracted to women who look like them. That being the case, my partner must have left his glasses at home the day we met. I mean to say, his eyes are blue, while mine are brown, his eyebrows are thick, while mine are thin (too much plucking back in the 70s), his nose is slender, while mine is more rounded, and he has full lips, while mine are lacking plumpness.

I can only conclude that he is more attracted to my wit, charm and personality than some narcissistic ideal. Either that or the female versions of him were a bit thin on the ground when he was looking for a partner.

According to another study, physically attractive people generally date other physically attractive people. Leaving the not-so-attractive people to date other not-so-attractive people. It’s almost like a caste system that’s difficult to break out of.

Right about now you might be asking, “How do these researchers account for those not-so-attractive, rich men who opt for a “trophy wife”? Shouldn’t Donald Trump, Rupert Murdoch and Woody Allen be seen around town with women who are more homely than the much younger, more attractive women who currently appear by their sides?”

It seems that attractive women who date someone below their level of attractiveness tend to justify their choices by saying something like, “He sure is ugly, and it’s kinda embarrassing to have to appear in public with gorilla man, but as long as I have access to his money, my life will be beautiful.”

However, such cases are the exceptions.
In a nutshell then, the so-called experts will have you believe that attractive people generally date other attractive people who look a bit like themselves; while ugly people generally date other ugly people who look a bit like themselves.

When the experts talk about people dating others who look like themselves, this concurs with yet another study that indicates that a woman often looks for a man who looks like her father, while a man often looks for a woman who looks like his mother.

Like, how creepy is all that? Fancy waking up in the morning to find someone resembling your mother or father snoring on the pillow next to you!

Researchers are quick to point out that there is nothing narcissistic about these attractions. We are attracted to people who look like ourselves (and possibly our parents as well) simply because of the comfort we get from familiarity.

I’m not disputing the results of the research, but they certainly don’t apply in my case. My father was an Irishman with light brown hair and green eyes, whereas my ex is a Chinese Malaysian. One of my sisters married a man of Italian origin, another married a Hispanic guy, and yet another married a blond-haired, blue-eyed Scottish man. None of our partners, past or present, look remotely like my father.

Of course, other researchers might tell me that my father was not a good role model and so we were all looking subconsciously for completely different men.

But who gives a toss, anyway?

All of this research into the laws of physical attraction really tells me just one thing: we are wasting a lot of money on studies that can’t be put to any practical use. Unless of course, you’re a fortune teller.

I can just imagine the scene in the fortune teller’s tent as she gazes into her crystal ball, with a young woman sitting opposite her: “Ah, I can see a man with blond hair and blue eyes in your life. He even looks a bit like you. Cross my palm with silver and I will reveal more.”

Most research costs money and is time consuming. As such, I think we ought to be more discerning about how we apply our research funds. Instead of focusing on who we might be attracted to and why, it might be better if the funding could be used to finance research on things like climate change, green energy, and how best to persuade newspaper editors that you really deserve a raise.

Perhaps I can get someone to fund a study on how much money has been wasted on useless studies.

But Then Again


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Teamwork made Man brainier, say scientists


Learning to work in teams may explain why humans evolved a bigger brain, according to a new study published on Wednesday.

Compared to his hominid predecessors, Homo sapiens is a cerebral giant, a riddle that scientists have long tried to solve.

The answer, according to researchers in Ireland and Scotland, may lie in .

Working with others helped Man to survive, but he had to develop a brain big enough to cope with all the social complexities, the experts believe. – Reuters Photo

In a , the team simulated the , allowing a network of to evolve in response to a series of .

There were two scenarios. The first entailed two partners in crime who had been caught by the police, each having to decide whether or not to inform on the other.

The second had two individuals trapped in a car in a snowdrift and having to weigh whether to cooperate to dig themselves out or just sit back and let the other do it.

In both cases, the individual would gain more from selfishness.

But the researchers were intrigued to find that as the brain evolved, the individual was likelier to choose to cooperate.

“We cooperate in large groups of unrelated individuals quite frequently, and that requires to keep track of who is doing what to you and change your behaviour accordingly,” co-author Luke McNally of Dublin’s Trinity College told AFP.

McNally pointed out, though, that cooperation has a calculating side. We do it out of .

“If you cooperate and I cheat, then next time we interact you could decide: ‘Oh well, he cheated last time, so I won’t cooperate with him.’ So basically you have to cooperate in order to receive cooperation in the future.”

McNally said teamwork and bigger brainpower fed off each other.

“Transitions to cooperative, complex societies can drive the evolution of a bigger brain,” he said.

“Once greater levels of intelligence started to evolve, you saw cooperation going much higher.”

The study appears in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, a journal published by Britain’s de-facto academy of sciences.

Commenting on the paper, Robin Dunbar, an evolutionary anthropologist at Oxford University, said the findings were a valuable add to understanding brain evolution.

But he said there were physiological limits to cooperation.

Man would need a “house-sized brain” to take cooperation to a perfect level on a planet filled with humans.

“Our current brain size limits the community size that we can manage … that we feel we belong to,” he said.

Our comfortable “personal social network” is limited to about 150, and boosting that to 500 would require a doubling of the size of the .

“In order to create greater social integration, greater social cohesion even on the size of France, never mind the size of the EU, never mind the planet, we probably have to find other ways of doing it” than wait for evolution, said Dunbar.

By Mariette le Roux AFP

Memory Strengthened by Stimulating Key Site in Brain

ScienceDaily (Feb. 8, 2012) — Ever gone to the movies and forgotten where you parked the car? New UCLA research may one day help you improve your memory.

UCLA neuroscientists have demonstrated that they can strengthen memory in human patients by stimulating a critical junction in the brain. (Credit: © rolffimages / Fotolia)

UCLA neuroscientists have demonstrated that they can strengthen memory in human patients by stimulating a critical junction in the brain. Published in the Feb. 9 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine, the finding could lead to a new method for boosting memory in patients with early Alzheimer’s disease.

The UCLA team focused on a brain site called the entorhinal cortex. Considered the doorway to the hippocampus, which helps form and store memories, the entorhinal cortex plays a crucial role in transforming daily experience into lasting memories.

“The entorhinal cortex is the golden gate to the brain’s memory mainframe,” explained senior author Dr. Itzhak Fried, professor of neurosurgery at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. “Every visual and sensory experience that we eventually commit to memory funnels through that doorway to the hippocampus. Our brain cells must send signals through this hub in order to form memories that we can later consciously recall.”

Fried and his colleagues followed seven epilepsy patients who already had electrodes implanted in their brains to pinpoint the origin of their seizures. The researchers monitored the electrodes to record neuron activity as memories were being formed.

Using a video game featuring a taxi cab, virtual passengers and a cyber city, the researchers tested whether deep-brain stimulation of the entorhinal cortex or the hippocampus altered recall. Patients played the role of cab drivers who picked up passengers and traveled across town to deliver them to one of six requested shops.

“When we stimulated the nerve fibers in the patients’ entorhinal cortex during learning, they later recognized landmarks and navigated the routes more quickly,” said Fried. “They even learned to take shortcuts, reflecting improved spatial memory.

“Critically, it was the stimulation at the gateway into the hippocampus – and not the hippocampus itself – that proved effective,” he added.

The use of stimulation only during the learning phase suggests that patients need not undergo continuous stimulation to boost their memory, but only when they are trying to learn important information, Fried noted. This may lead the way to neuro-prosthetic devices that can switch on during specific stages of information processing or daily tasks.

Six million Americans and 30 million people worldwide are newly diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease each year. The progressive disorder is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and the fifth leading cause of death for those aged 65 and older.

“Losing our ability to remember recent events and form new memories is one of the most dreaded afflictions of the human condition,” said Fried. “Our preliminary results provide evidence supporting a possible mechanism for enhancing memory, particularly as people age or suffer from early dementia. At the same time, we studied a small sample of patients, so our results should be interpreted with caution.”

Future studies will determine whether deep-brain stimulation can enhance other types of recall, such as verbal and autobiographical memories. No adverse effects of the stimulation were reported by the seven patients.

Fried’s coauthors included first author Nanthia Suthana, as well as Dr. Zulfi Haneef, Dr. John Stern, Roy Mukamel, Eric Behnke and Barbara Knowlton, all of UCLA. The research was supported by grants from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Dana Foundation.

Story Source:

The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Health Sciences, via Newswise. The original article was written by Elaine Schmidt.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

Journal Reference:

  1. Nanthia Suthana, Zulfi Haneef, John Stern, Roy Mukamel, Eric Behnke, Barbara Knowlton, Itzhak Fried. Memory Enhancement and Deep-Brain Stimulation of the Entorhinal Area. New England Journal of Medicine, 2012; 366 (6): 502 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1107212

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